Global temperature anomalies with respect to average temperatures in the 20th century converted to degrees Fahrenheit.
Notes on Climate Change and Arid Basins Adaptation, Inevitability and Types of Major Effects reflects on how adaptation in arid/semi-arid basins might differ from adaptation under other climatic/hydrological conditions.
Climate change, according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2007a, 2013), refers to the identified change in climate including the mean and variability, lasting for decades or even longer, as a result of natural internal or external drivers (eg: anthropogenic intervention).
This article will focus on the aspects of future climate change that are likely to be important for the evolution of parameters relevant to engineered river basins.
Growing water extractions from agriculture and urban uses combined with emerging demands for environment protection are increasing competition for scarce water resources worldwide, especially in arid and semiarid regions.
One approach for dealing with climate change is to adapt operations so that they produce successfully under altered climate.
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reports that climate change has occurred and is going to continue, driven by both past and future greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.
This document is a summary of Nile Basin characteristics.